Speech-Language Pathologists work with families and clients to address communication delays or disorders. Speech therapy for children generally involves pursuing milestones that have not been reached due to developmental delays or disorders. Treatment targets identified areas of difficulty with receptive language, understanding what others say; expressive language, communicating wants, needs, feelings, and thoughts; and/or pragmatic language, verbal and non-verbal rules of social communication. Intervention may also address the mechanics of producing words, such as articulation, phonology, motor planning (apraxia), pitch, fluency, and volume. Therapists may utilize alternative means of communication to help clients express themselves such as using sign language, pictures, or communication devices. For older children and young adults, therapy may target higher level activities such as written expression, executive functioning, auditory processing, and social skills. Disorders that may effect communication include: Apraxia of Speech, Auditory Processing Disorders, Autism, Down Syndrome, Hearing Loss, Mitochondrial Disease, Cerebral Palsy, and other chromosomal/genetic disorders.